The following information was reported in ITU Trends in Telecommunications Reform – 2004/05: Licensing in an Era of Convergence (Geneva: ITU, 2004), and was adapted from the website of the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of India [available on-line at: http://www.trai.gov.in/].
In India, the predominant regional service areas are known as “circles,” which roughly correspond to the boundaries of India’s states. The four largest cities—Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkota and Chennai—are circles in their own right.
India also has utilized regional licensing on a much smaller level than its circles. These smaller service areas include “Short Distance Charging Areas” (SDCAs) and “Long Distance Charging Areas” (LDCAs), also known as secondary switching areas.
In addition to licensing services in the circles, India has also issued national licences. For domestic long distance and international long distance services, the service area has been defined as the entire country.
This multi-tiered licensing strategy means that licences can cover a variety of geographic areas, including all of India. For Internet access services, for example, a service area could be an LDCA, a circle or the entire country.